East Asia Image Collections

Overview of Collections

The East Asia Image Collection (EAIC) is an open-access archive of digitized photographs, negatives, postcards, rare books and slides under the general editorship of Paul D. Barclay, Associate Professor of History, Lafayette College and the direction of Eric Luhrs, Director of Digital Scholarship Services, Lafayette College Library.  The EAIC documents the history of imperial Japan (1868-1945), its Asian empire (1895-1945) and occupied Japan (1947-52). Images of Taiwan 台湾, Japan 日本, China 中国, Korea 朝鮮, Manchuria 満洲国, and Indonesia are included. The Collection is built around a core of visual materials donated to Skillman Library Special Collections by the family of Gerald and Rella Warner. Images unique to this collection include the Warners' unpublished slides and negatives , made from snapshots taken during their years of US State Department service in Asia (1932-1952). Rare materials include prewar picture postcards, high-quality commercial prints, and colonial era picture books. Each record in the East Asia Image Collection has been assigned subject headings, hyper-linked metadata, and, to the fullest extent possible, historiographical, bibliographical and technical data.

Richard Mammana Japanese Empire Postcard Collection thumbnail

Richard Mammana Japanese Empire Postcard Collection

The first 150 postcards of this collection are official portraits, political cartoons, caricatures, and editorials about the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). The Japanese cards exhibit bold design elements and extol military heroism. The Western cards illustrate fears of the "Yellow Peril," and varied appraisals of Japan as the newest member of the imperialist club. The next 100 cards illustrate, narrate and document Japan's occupation and invasion of China from 1931 through 1945, including cards about the international diplomatic environment. Over 100 examples of cartoon postcards of Japanese military life, colonial rule, and warfare from the 1930s and 1940s comprise the next set. The remaining 250 cards provide a wide array of patriotic themes and visions of idealized life on the homefront and in occupied territories. These include military songs and posters to commemorate important dates and years on the wartime ritual calendar. 127 postcards from this last section are from the collection Aikoku hyakunin isshu (愛国百人一首). These items retrofit wartime patriotic slogans into visual and poetic idioms from Japan's classical literary heritage. These 600 postcards were generously donated by Richard Mammana.

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The Truku-Japanese War Commemorative Postcard Collection

The Truku-Japanese War of 1914 was the culmination of Japan's 20-year campaign to disarm and assert sovereignty over Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples. This 100-postcard set provides an intimate photographic portrait of camp life, logistics, battles, terrain, and Japanese interactions with Taiwanese conscripts, allies, enemies, and objects of ethnographic interest. From May to August of 1914, the government deployed 3108 soldiers, 3127 police, and 4840 laborers (over 11,000 people) against a Truku population of roughly 10,000 people. The goal was to avenge previous uprisings and to finalize the conquest of the island colony. After burning several Truku villages, taking prisoners, confiscating rifles, and killing countless combatants, the Japanese declared victory on August 23, 1914. Mr. Fang Hsien-hui 方晛煇 lent these items to the Puli Municipal Library for a November 2014 exhibition. The Library's Mr. Chen Yi-fang 陳義方 arranged the transfer of digital images to the East Asia Image Collection, as well as providing invaluable advice. We also thank Dr. John Shufelt and Dr. Wang Peng-hui 王鵬惠for their contributions to this project.

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Japanese Imperial House Postcard Album

This postcard album is titled "Haeyuru kōshitsu," which means "the Glorious Imperial House." It contains 78 picture postcards. The album appears to have been compiled in Japan just after the Shōwa Emperor's enthronement ceremonies in November, 1928. Photographs of the Meiji, Taishō and Shōwa emperors and empresses, artistic renderings of the various state Shintō ceremonies associated with Japanese kingship, the celebration of imperial matrimony, and the Crown Prince Hirohito's 1923 visit to Taiwan are the main themes.

T.W. Ingersoll Co. Stereoviews of the Siege of Port Arthur thumbnail

T.W. Ingersoll Co. Stereoviews of the Siege of Port Arthur

These one hundred images from the Russo-Japanese War are mostly set in Dalian, away from the battlefront. The lengthy descriptions on the backs, reproduced in the "description.text.english" field, display a strong pro-Japan bias. Russians are absent in the imagery and maligned in the text. Local Chinese purveyors of goods and services are featured as enterprising, eager, and well treated by the Japanese. Laudatory portraits of Japanese officers and Western war-correspondents are also prominent. Descriptions of major battles are found throughout the sub-collection. This complete set of stereoview cards was generously donated by Richard Mammana.

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Imperial Postcards

The Imperial Postcard Collection consists of imagery from Japan and its colonies, wartime China, and selected areas of the wider imperialized world, from 1900 to 1945. "Manners and Customs" cards from Manchuria, North and Central China, Korea, Taiwan, Honshu, and Hokkaido are prominent. Also included are images associated with the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), the Manchurian Incident (1931) and the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937), as well as portraits of Japanese heroes, royalty and statesmen. 1,756 postcards, 46 envelopes and two trading cards.

Tsubokura Russo-Japanese War Postcard Album thumbnail

Tsubokura Russo-Japanese War Postcard Album

These 105 picture postcards were purchased as an album that appears to be correspondence "from the battleground " 戦地より by one Tsubokura Monnosuke 坪倉紋之助 to Tsubokura Jirō 坪倉二郎, both of whom resided in Yotsuya Ward, Tokyo. Monnosuke was enlisted in the Fifth Army's Third Assistant Porter Company 出征第五師団第三補助輸卆隊. A majority of these cards are government-issue commemorative and soldier's consolation cards, while twenty-one of them are "pin-up girls." The 73 cards with legible postmarks were mailed between June 5, 1904 and April 15, 1906. A few of these cards were to and from other addressees and senders.

Sino-Japanese War Postcard Album 01 thumbnail

Sino-Japanese War Postcard Album 01

From the July 7, 1941, dedication: "This postcard album was published with war relief contributions....Thus, it is hoped that it will accompany troops and be used for mementos." These postcards are watercolors of scenes from China, painted by Mutō Yashū 武藤夜舟, Kojō Kōkan 古城江観, Seno Kakuzō 瀬野覚蔵, Kobayakawa Atsushirō 小早川篤四郎, Kojima Matsunosuke 古島松之助, Mikuni Hisashi 三國久, Mikami Tomoharu 三上智治 and others. There are 92 postcards in this album.

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Sino-Japanese War Postcard Album 02

This album shares publication details with "Sino-Japanese War Postcard Album 01." Michael J. Stosic (1914-2010) presumably collected this album during his tour of combat, as a member of the 317th Troop Carrier Group, which was stationed variously in New Guinea, the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines, Okinawa, Korea, and Japan. The original owner was Satō Kichinoshin. 53 postcards, including images of Chinese Treaty Ports, Arawashi Japanese fighter planes, and other Chinese themes.

Lin Chia-Feng Family Postcards thumbnail

Lin Chia-Feng Family Postcards

The Lin Chia-feng (林佳楓) Family Postcard Collection contains 370 colonial-era postcards (1900-1945)  from Taiwan, Japan, Korea and China. Industry, tourism, colonial governance, monuments, festivals, and public works are prominent themes. Noteworthy sets include: "Famous Places of Niigata 新潟名所", "Commemorative Postcards of the Yilan Waterworks 宜蘭水道通水記念", "Japanese Police Inspection of Canton 広東憲兵隊検閲済", "The Ancient Ruins of Gyeongju 慶州古跡", "40 years of Colonial Rule in Taiwan Commemorative Exhibition 始政四十周年記念台湾博覧会", "Yamagata Aquarium 山形県水族館" and "Luodong Timber Industry 羅東営林所." These postcards were lent to Lafayette College by Lin Shuchin and John Shufelt and were collected by Lin Chia-feng.

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Japanese History Study Cards

This set of 48 playing cards was designed to help children memorize phrases and terms related to "national history." They were published in October 1935, as Japan was putting itself on a wartime footing. The army was ratcheting up pressure on the Nationalist government of China by stationing troops ever deeper into areas south and west of the puppet state of Manchukuo, which had been under Japanese occupation since September 1931. The cards are thus all related to soldiering and martial values. It was published by the Jinseidō company in Kanda, Tokyo, and sold for 15 sen and promised to "make entrance examination preparation truly fun." These cards were generously donated to Skillman Library Special Collections by Richard Mammana.

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Pacific War Postcards

The Pacific War Collection contains 36 postcards sent from Japanese civilians to surrendered Japanese soldiers in the Philippine Islands, Sumatra, and the South Seas. All of these postcards were processed by the Civilian Censorship Detachment (CCD) of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (also known as SCAP). Each record contains a postcard and its contents (usually personal communications to family members), an English translation of the address, and the backs of the cards, which contain postal information and the CCD's censorship stamps. Identifiable postmarks range from August 19, 1945 to March 10, 1946.

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Michael Lewis Postcards

517 colonial-era (1895-1945) postcards from Japanese governed Taiwan. Various postcard companies, genres, printing formats and time periods are represented. Noteworthy are several official commemorative sets 台湾総督府始政記念 issued by the Taiwan Government General 台湾総督府, and dozens of b/w cards published between 1900 and the 1920s. These older cards contain several thematic elements and represent postcard companies that drop out of the historical record by the mid 1930s. These postcards were lent to Lafayette College for scanning and publication by collector Michael Lewis.

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Gerald & Rella Warner Postcards

These items were collected in Taiwan by Gerald and Rella Warner during Gerald's service as US Consul between August 26, 1937 and March 8, 1941. Warner Taiwan Postcards contains 201 postcards and 139 b/w commercial photographs from that period. Many of these images also appear in colonial-period albums such as Suzuki Hideo  鈴木秀夫, ed., Taiwan bankai tenbō 台灣蕃界展望. (Taipei: Riban no tomo, 1935) and Katsuyama Yoshisaku 勝山吉作, ed., Taiwan shōkai saishin shashinshū 臺灣紹介最新写真集 (Taipei, 1931). Gift of Dallas Finn.

Gerald & Rella Warner Dutch East Indies Negatives thumbnail

Gerald & Rella Warner Dutch East Indies Negatives

US Consul to Taiwan Gerald Warner and his wife Rella created these 275 photographic negatives between June 11, 1938 and July 27, 1938. Most (257) were taken in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) during a vacation from consular duties in Taiwan. The remainder were taken in Hong Kong harbor (17) and Shantou (1). The following themes are most prominent: working conditions and equipment in ports and harbors, tourist attractions (including Borobudur, Balinese drama, and temple architecture), agricultural scenes, village life, and local markets. The captions for these images are taken from hand-written comments in the Warners' photo albums. Gift of the Estate of Gerald and Rella Warner.

Gerald & Rella Warner Manchuria Negatives thumbnail

Gerald & Rella Warner Manchuria Negatives

US Vice Consul to Mukden (Shenyang) Gerald Warner created these 298 photographs between March 22, 1934 and August 2, 1935. Noteworthy are images of a parade for the 30th Anniversary of the Russo-Japanese War 日露戦争, complete with floats, Japanese revelers in Russian costumes, and crowds celebrating victory. Pictures from Manzhouli 満州里, with its mixture of Russian, Manchu and Chinese architecture, are also prominent. The North Manchuria Railway, the Zhaoling 昭陵 and Fuling 福陵 Mausoleum complexes, Shisheng Temple, life in Shenyang's old and new quarters, and several other topics--from coal mines to military drills--are also depicted.  Gift of the Estate of Gerald and Rella Warner.

 Gerald & Rella Warner Taiwan Negatives thumbnail

Gerald & Rella Warner Taiwan Negatives

US Consul to Taiwan Gerald Warner and his wife Rella created these 369 photographic negatives between August 26, 1937 and March 8, 1941. Depicted is the daily life of the dwindling and besieged Western community on the eve of the Pacific War. Just as prominent are urban and rural scenes of Japanese, Taiwanese, and expatriate life in Taiwan. The Warners' short trips to tourist destinations in Tainan 台南, Taroko Gorge タロコ峡, Sun Moon Lake 日月潭, Mount Kappan 角板山,  and Orchid Island 紅頭嶼 (Lanyu) are also illustrated. Unposed photographs of the neighborhoods, festival life, and pastimes of the Japanese residents of Taipei are noteworthy. The captions for these images are taken from hand-written comments in the Warners' photo albums. Gift of the Estate of Gerald and Rella Warner.

Gerald & Rella Warner Japan Slides thumbnail

Gerald & Rella Warner Japan Slides

567 color slides from the personal collection of US State Department official Gerald Warner and his wife Rella Warner. The great majority were produced between 1947 and 1951, during the US Occupation of Japan. Included are scenes of postwar reconstruction, urban and village life, military reviews, May Day parades,  and portraits of formal and informal aspects of Japanese-Western diplomacy. Pictures of domestic life and scenery in Karuizawa 軽井沢, Yokohama 横浜, Kobe 神戸 and Tokyo, as well as photos of Yoshida Shigeru 吉田茂, Ikeda Hayato 池田勇人, Douglas MacArthur, Syngman Rhee, Lyndon Johnson, and Ural Johnson, are also included. Gift of the Estate of Gerald and Rella Warner.

Gerald & Rella Warner Souvenirs of Beijing and Tokyo thumbnail

Gerald & Rella Warner Souvenirs of Beijing and Tokyo

These sixty-one hand-colored b/w prints and lithographed postcards were collected by Gerald and Rella Warner during State Department postings in China (January 1932 to August 1935) and Japan (July 1948 to June 1950). Included are forty commercial photographs and twelve postcards of tourist sites in Beijing from the "Nanjing Decade" (1928-1937), when Beijing was also known as "Peiping." Also included are eight photos of landmarks in Tokyo during the period of U.S. Occupation (1945-1952).

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Woodsworth Images

These 25 prints and 18 postcards of colonial Taiwan were collected on-site by David Woodsworth (1918-2010) in the fall of 1940. Woodsworth's brother-in-law and host Donald Bews (1911-2008) was director of the McKay Memorial Hospital in Taipei from 1939 to 1941 and intimate of US Consul Gerald Warner (1907-1989). Prominent are images of Taiwan Indigenous Peoples, their artwork, architecture and natural environment. Also featured are pictures of the Sun Moon Lake resort area. Images scanned and used with the permission of Andrew Woodsworth.

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Scenic Taiwan Book

'Taiwan no fūkō' (Scenic Taiwan) 台湾の風光is one of many photo albums published in the 1930s that depict different areas of the Japanese Empire. This particular volume was published in Wakayama Prefecture in or after 1938, though it appeared in a less censored form in 1934. Its editor, one Yamazaki Kin'ichirō (or Kane'ichirō) (1897-1985), published several albums of Taiwan, Manchuria, and Hokkaidō photographs in this same decade. 'Scenic Taiwan' extols the good results of Japanese colonial rule, both in picture and in text. This digital version features the editor's translations of all captions, along with the original Japanese, providing a resource for studies in colonial architecture, discourse, and East Asian folkways.

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Taiwan Photographic Monthly Periodical

The Taiwan shashinchō 台湾写真帳 (Taiwan Photograph Album) was published monthly from November 1914 through December 1915, for a total of 14 issues. The 468 pages captured for this collection include reprints of photographs from other Japanese publications, and many unique photographs. The "Monthly" was published in Tainan by the "Taiwan Shashinkai" 台湾写真会 (Taiwan Photography Society). While the photographs themselves are of much interest, the generous captions provide researchers with a window into Japanese constructions of Taiwan in the early 1910s. The editorial team has translated dozens of selected captions, which can be fruitfully compared to those found in the 1930s album "Scenic Taiwan."

east asia image collection example item recordViewing the Collection

This collection includes two special features to aid navigation both within and across records. First, the record numbers have been devised so that results pages--the lists of records produced by searches or by clicking hyperlinks--automatically sort records into their various subcollections. Second, the link calledIdentifier.Zoom allows you to magnify images and to navigate within those "zoomed" images with greater ease than the Conent DM navigation tools.



The East Asia Image Collection makes use of the following metadata fields:


Titles in square brackets are the editor's translations of Japanese titles, or assigned titles. Titles without brackets are transcribed verbatim from a record's source material or are the English titles provided in bilingual sources.

Each title is preceded by a bracketed 6-digit record number (i.e. [wa0018] or [gr0195]). Record numbers are in the Title field to facilitate sorting of records listed as search results. The two-letter prefix indicates a subcollection: gr=Warner Taiwan Negatives; lw=Michael Lewis Collection; nf=Scenic Taiwan; js=Warner Japan Slides; ts=Taiwan Photographic Monthly; and wa=Warner Taiwan Postcards. Four-digit numbers represent sequences within subcollections. Each subcollection begins with record number [xx0001]. The record numbers are NOT the numerals followed by a period to the left of the thumbnail on the browsing page. These other numerals, which are also next to the check-boxes, represent a record's position within the results page. Hence, "results" numbers change each time a user performs a sorting function or uses the "compare" feature.Record numbersare stable. They are used for citation and cross-referencing.


Japanese titles are entered verbatim from Japanese source material. Sino-Japanese characters (kanji/hanzi) are generally entered as modern characters, even if the source material uses older forms.


Chinese titles are translations of Japanese or English titles. They appear in brackets since they are attributed, and do not appear on the artifacts themselves. Chinese titles are being added to images from China and Taiwan.


Korean titles are translations of Japanese or English titles. They appear in brackets since they are attributed, and do not appear on the artifacts themselves. Korean titles are being added to images from Korea.


The three-digit numerals to the left of each hyperlinked subject heading are Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM) subject codes. These are developed, updated, and maintained in the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) at Yale University http://www.yale.edu/hraf/outline.htm.


Information about source material added by the editor and/or contributors.


Printed information connected to the images in the record. These have been reproduced (misspellings and idiosyncratic orthography/spellings included) as faithfully as possible. Translated Japanese captions are indicated by square brackets.


Printed Japanese-language information connected to the images in the records.


Printed information on the backs of postcards that provides information relevant to dating the postcard itself (not the image).


Place names in Pinyin. Romanized Japanese, Wade-Giles, Kanji, Hanzi, and other commonly used Romanized Chinese equivalents are listed here.


There are several alternative Romanized spellings for Taiwanese ethnic groups. The following are the most generally used spellings, and are adopted for this website: Han, Atayal, Bunun, Saisiat, Sao, Tsou, Paiwan, Ami, Rukai, Puyuma, and Yami. This field is also used for Koreans, Chinese, Japanese, and other nationalities if either people, artifacts, or a built environment connected with these peoples appears in the card.


Names of Lafayette College students and faculty responsible for data input, translations, research, scanning, color correction, etc. In addition, this field lists names of experts who have provided content, criticisms, and other forms of assistance for a particular image.


Provides a list of records that use the exact same image. Numbers in brackets, such as [ip0002], for example, refer to records in the East Asian Image Collection.

"BMC" stands for Busan Museum Collection. These numbers are taken from the eight-volume set published by the museum, Yu Sŭng-hun 유승훈. Sajin yŏpsŏ ro ponŭn kŭndae p’unggyŏng 사진엽서로보는근대풍경[The Looks of Modern Korea from Postcards].

"MFA" stands for "Museum of Fine Arts" [Boston]. These numbers are taken from the MFA website. The corresponding records can be located by entering the record number in the search box at: http://www.mfa.org/

"NCL" stands for "National Central Library" [Taipei, Taiwan]. These numbers are taken from the NCL website. The corresponding records can be located by entering the record number in the search box at: http://memory.ncl.edu.tw/tm_new/index.htm

Published images of the same or similar scenes, people, or objects, but shot from different angles at different times, ARE NOT included in this field. We are counting on users to alert the editor if these images appear in other publications, so we may create a "life history" of each image. Please send your identifications with citation information to barclayp@lafayette.edu and specify how you would like your name to appear in the contributor field.


Author and Year of book, magazine, or pamphlet that contains the same "image." For this field, "image" is defined as the photograph that appears in the postcard, pamphlet or book. For example, if the photograph in a postcard appears in a book that depicts a differently designed postcard with the same photograph in it, we consider that a "match."


Description of the material object captured by the digital image.


Publisher, printer, or distributor of postcards, albums, or commercial prints.


Photographers, painters, and editors associated with original images or sources.


Dimensions of source document (pages, postcards, prints).


The most recent possible date of the source document (the material object on the scanner).


The earliest possible date of the source document (the material object on the scanner).


The most recent possible date the photograph itself, later reproduced in an album or as a postcard.


The earliest possible date the photograph itself, later reproduced in an album or as a postcard.


It is difficult to isolate the precise date of publication for a postcard. However, formats dictated by postal regulations, cancellation marks, or written matter often provide upper or lower limits. For example, a "January 15, 1926" cancellation mark on a "1/3 divided back" postcard was published before 19260116 (Date.Artifact.Upper), but must have been published after 19070328 (March 28, 1907) (Date.Artifact.Lower). Limits are assigned to the images themselves (not the artifacts) when external evidence is available.


Record [lw0081] (The eighty-first record in the Michael Lewis Collection).









This postcard was published between March 1st, 1918 and February 14th, 1933. The photograph reproduced on the postcard was shot in January of 1915.

Dates are rendered in the format YYYY-MM-DD to facilitate sorting. For example, if a researcher seeks a chronological sequence of images or artifacts produced by a particular keyword or subject search, clicking one of the date fields in the header row of the CONTENTdm results page will accomplish this task. The editors are still in the process of assigning dates to the thousands of images in the collection.


If you have information about an image in this collection, either to identify its contents, report a sighting or citing in another printed version, or to suggest a revision to an entry, please consider collaborating on this project. Communications in Chinese, Japanese, or English are welcome. Send to General Editor Paul D. Barclay at barclayp@lafayette.edu. Please include your name, email address, title/position, and an image # or image numbers to identify the images to which you refer. The editor will do his best to verify as much of the submitted information as possible, realizing that many contributors will far exceed him in expertise and authority.

Citation Formats

East Asia Image Collection. Easton, PA: Lafayette College, 2012. http://digital.lafayette.edu/collections/eastasia/ ([Date Accessed]), image [image #].

East Asia Image Collection, (Easton, PA: Lafayette College, 2012), http://digital.lafayette.edu/collections/eastasia/ ([Date Accessed]), image [image #].

Supporting Material

Links to Related Image Sites

Database of the Pre-1945 East Asian Postcards

Kyoto University Area Studies Center for Integrated Information


Taiwan Memory

National Central Library Taiwan Historical Images from Japanese Period


The Leonard A. Lauder Collection Boston Museum of Fine Arts


Visualizing Cultures

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


N.Ogawa / E.Asai Formosan Collection

小川尚義 浅井恵倫 臺灣資料 小川尚義(1869--1947) 浅井恵倫(1895--1969)収


American Geographical Society Library

AGSL Digital Photo Archive

Asia and the Middle East


Virtual Shanghai: Urban Space in Time

Editor: Christian Henriot


Japan Postcard Society 日本絵葉書会


Reference Material for Postcard Research

Basic Books:

Christraud Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering Views:Distant Cultures in Early Postcards. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1998.

Ikuta, Makoto 生田誠. 2005 Nihon ehagaki katarogu [2005 Japanese Picture Postcard Catalog] 日本絵葉書カタログ. 東京:里文出版, 2004.

Morse, Anne Nishimura, J. Thomas Rimer and Kendall H. Brown. Art of the Japanese Postcard. Boston: MFA Publications a Division of the Museum of Fine Arts, 2004.

Shimada Kenzō. Checklist of Japanese Commemorative Picture Post Cards 日本記念絵葉書総図鑑 カラー復刻版. 日本郵趣出版, 2009.


Henry, Todd A. "Sanitizing Empire: Japanese Articulations of Korean Otherness and the Construction of Early Colonial Seoul, 1905-19," Journal of Asian Studies vol. 64, no. 3 (Aug. 2005): 639-75.

Kwŏn, Hyŏk-hŭi 권 혁희. Chosŏn esŏ on sajin yŏpsŏ [Postcards from Korea] 조선 에서 온 사진 엽서. Sŏul: Minŭmsa, 2005.

Lynn Hyung Gu, ‘Moving Pictures: Postcards of Colonial Korea', IIAS Newsletter 44 (2007):8-9.

Pai Hyung Il. "Navigating Modern Keijō : The Typology of Reference Guides and City Landmarks." Seoul Hak [Seoul Studies] XLIV (August 2011):1-40.

_______. "Tracing Japan’s Antiquity: Photography, Archaeology and Representations of Kyŏngju." Symposium Volume Oriental Aesthetics and Thinking: Conflicting Visions of “Asia” under the Colonial Empires edited by Shigemi Inaga. pp. 289-316 (International Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, Japan, 2011).

Urakawa Kazuya 浦川和也. 'Ehagaki de Chōsen sōtokufu o miru: "Chōsen hantō ehagaki" no shiryōteki kachi to naihōsareta "mezashi"' [Looking at the Government General of Korea with Picture Postcards: The Value of "Korean Peninsula Postcards" as Historical Materials and their Implicit Views]. Shuka 朱夏21 (August 2006):39-52.


Barclay, Paul D. 'Nihontsū no me o tsūshite mita Taiwan: Taiheiyō sensō chokuzen ni Amerika ryōjikan ga shūshū shite ita ehagaki to shashin' [Formosa Through the Consul’s Eyes: Postcards from a ‘Friend of Japan’ on the Eve of the Pacific War] Taiwan Genjūmin Kenkyū 12 (2008):85-112.

_______, Peddling Postcards and Selling Empire: Image-Making in Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule. Japanese Studies 30,1 (May 2010):81-110.

Liu Wei-min 劉 偉民. "The representation of the colonial image: the research of the aboriginal postcards’ images in Japanese period." Doctoral Dissertation, National Chenggong University, Department of Art. 碩士論文--國立成功大學藝術研究所. 2005.

Yamaji Katsuhiko. 'Ehagaki no minzokushi, aruiwa shokuminchi no hyōjō: kōminka jidai, senkakusha no egaita Taiwan Tsuouzoku no jigazō' [Picture-postcard ethnography and Colonial Representations: Self-Images of the Taiwan Tsou People as Depicted by a Visionary during the Imperialization Era]. Taiwan Genjūmin kenkyū [Studies on Indigenous Peoples of Taiwan] 13 (2009):76-93.

Russo-Japanese War:

Dower, John. MIT Visualizing Cultures. "Asia Rising: Japanese Postcards of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)." http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/asia_rising/index.html

Kōgo Eriko. 向後恵里子. 'Nihon ehagaki: Nichiro sensōki ni okeru ehagaki buumu to suisaiga buumu o megutte' [Japanese Picture Postcards: On the Watercolor Painting and Picture Postcard Booms of the Russo-Japanese War Period]. Waseda Daigaku kyōiku-bu Gakujutsu kenkyū 58 (February 2010):59-90.

_______. 'Teishinshō hakkō Nichiro seneki kinen ehagaki: sono jissō to igi' [Ministry of Telegraphs and Posts Commemorative Battle Postcards of the Russo-Japanese War: On their Empirical Status and Significance] 逓信省発行日露戦役紀念絵葉書―その実相と意義―. Bijutsushi kenkyū 美術史研究 41 (2003):103-142.

Miura Yasuyuki 三浦泰之. '1900 nendai kara 1920 nendai no ehagaki arubamu kō' [On a Picture Postcard Album from the 1900-1920 Era]. Hokkaidō Kaitaku kinenkan kenkyū kiyō [Bulletin of the Historical Museum of Hokkaido] 37 (2009): 129-164.

Sharf, Frederic A., Anne Nishimura Morse and Sebastian Dobson. A Much Recorded War: The Russo-Japanese War in History and Imagery. Boston: MFA Publications, a division of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2005.

China and Manchukuo:

Kishi Toshihiko (2010): Manshūkoku no bijuaru-media: Postā, ehagaki, kitte [Colonial Manchuria's visual media: Posters, pictorial postcards, postal stamps]. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan.

Mōri Yasuhide 毛利康秀. 'Ehagaki kenkyūshi kara mita Harubin ehagaki no ichizuke to Dejitaru aakaibuka no igi' [The Place of Harbin Picture Postcards viewed from Postcard Historiography and the Significance of Digitization of Archives]. Nihon Daigaku bunrigaku-bu jōhō kagaku kenkyūjo nenji kenkyū hōkokusho 8 (2009);55-64.

Politzer, Eric, 'To Look at Flowers while Riding an Iron Horse: Some Railway Depots of North China,' Image File: A Journal from the Curt Teich Postcard Archives, Lake County Discovery Museum, 13:1 (2002): 3-7.

Japanese Postcards:

Satō Kenji, 'Postcards in Japan: A Historical Sociology of a Forgotten Culture,' International Journal of Japanese Sociology 11:1 (November 2002):41.

_______, 'Ehagaki no naka no jinruigaku' [Anthropology in Picture Postcards] in Yamashita Shinji, ed., Kankō jinruigaku [Touristic Anthropology]. Tokyo: Shin'yōsha, 1996, 45-53.

Tanabe Motoki 田邊幹. 'Media toshite no ehagaki' [The Meaning of Postcards as Media] メディアとしての絵葉書. Niigata kenritsu rekishi hakubutsukan kenkyū kiyō 3 (2002):73-83.

_______. 'Kindai Nihonjin no Higashi Ajia, Nan'yō shotō e no "manazashi": ehagaki no rekishiteki kachi no "ibunka" hyōshō' [The Japanese "Views" to the People of East Asia and Micronesia: Archives Importance and the Other Race Representation, in the Japanese Picture Postcards]. Kokuritsu rekishi minzoku hakubutsukan kenkyū hōkoku 140 (March 2008):117-164.

Postcard Research:

Albers, Patricia. 'Symbols, Souvenirs, and Sentiments: Postcard Imagery of Plains Indians, 1898-1918’ in C. Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering Views:Distant Cultures in Early Postcards.Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 65-89.

Banta, Melissa. ' Photographic Encounters in the Philippines, 1898-1910.' IIAS Newsletter 44 (2007):14-15.

Fraser, John, 'Propaganda on the Picture Postcard,' The Oxford Art Journal(October, 1980): 39-47.

Geary, Christraud M. 'Different Visions? Postcards from Africa by European and African Photographers and Sponsors', in C. Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering Views:Distant Cultures in Early Postcards.Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 147-178.

Hoskins, Janet. 'Postcards from the Edge of Empire: Images and Messages from French Indochina.' IIAS Newsletter 44 (2007):16-17.

Mathur, Saloni. "Wanted Native Views: Collecting Colonial Postcards of India." In Gender Sexuality and Colonial Modernities, ed. Antoinette Burton, 95-116. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge, 1999.

Webb, Virginia-Lee, 'Transformed Images: Photographers and Postcards from the Pacific Islands', in Christaud M. Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering Views:Distant Cultures in Early Postcards. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 115-45.

Woody, Howard. 'International Postcards: Their History, Production and Distribution (circa 1895 to 1915)', in Christaud M. Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 13-46.


Bibliography for "description.citation" field in East Asia Image Collection records

Aboriginal Peoples of Taiwan 台湾の原住民. Postcards: sets 1-5. n.d. Zhuanye Taiwan bentu chuban jijiang 専業台湾本土出版機構, printed by 前衛出版社. Purchased at Taiwan Indigenous Peoples Culture Park, Pingdong, Taiwan, December 15th, 2007.

Barclay, Paul D. Gaining Trust and Friendship in Aborigine Country: Diplomacy, Drinking, and Debauchery on Japan's Southern Frontier. Social Science Japan Journal 6,1 (April 2003):77-96.

Barclay, Paul D. Peddling Postcards and Selling Empire: Image-Making in Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule. Japanese Studies 30,1 (May 2010):81-110.

Barclay, Paul D. 'Nihontsū' no me o tsūshite mita Taiwan: Taiheiyō sensō chokuzen ni Amerika ryōjikan ga shūshū shiteita ehagaki to shashin (Formosa through the Consul's Eyes: Postcards from a 'Japan hand' on the Eve of the Pacific War.' Trans. Naoko Ikegami. Taiwan Genjūmin Kenkyū (Studies on Indigenous Peoples of Taiwan) 12 (2008):85-112.

Blundell, David, ed. Austronesian Taiwan: linguistics, history, ethnology, and prehistory. Taipei, Taiwan: SMC, 2001.

Cai, Yida 蔡易達 and Nagayama, Hideki 永山英樹. Taiwan o shiru: Taiwan kokumin chugaku rekishi kyokasho 台湾を知る: 台湾国民中学歴史敎科書. Tokyo: Yūzankaku Shuppan, 2000.

Chen, Chi-lu. 臺灣排灣群諸族木彫標本圖錄 (Woodcarving of the Paiwan group of Taiwan). 台北市: 南天書局, 1961.

Chen, Chi-lu. Material Culture of the Formosan Aborigines. Taipei: Taiwan Museum, 1968.

Chen, Guoqiang 陳國強; Lin, Jiahuang 林嘉煌. 高山族文化. Gaoshan zu wen hua Shanghai: Xuelin chubanshe, 1988.

Cho, P'ung-yǒn. Sajin ǔro ponǔn Chosǒn sidae 사진으로보는朝鮮時代 [Yi-Dynasty Through Pictures]. 2 vols. Seoul: Sǒmundang, 1996.

Chung, Shu-min 鍾淑敏. Zhi chan fang lue: Taiwan chan ye kai fa, 1895-1945 殖產方略: 台灣產業開發=The schemes of production: Taiwan's industrial development. Taibei Shi: Li hong chu ban she, 1997.

Collection Paul Wirz 1936, © Dadi Wirz & Musée d’ethnographie de Neuchâtel.

Dali Kagei 達利卡給. Gaosha wang guo 高砂王國. Trans. Naogeihe Youbashi 游霸士撓給赫. Taizhong Shi: Chen xing chu ban you xian gong si, 2002.

Deng, Xiangyang 鄧相陽. Wushe shi jian 霧社事件. Taibei Shi: Yushan she, 1998.

Fujii Shizushi 藤井志津枝. Rizhi shiqi Taiwan Zongdufu lifan zhengce 日治時期臺灣總督府理蕃政策. Taipei: Wenyingtang chubanshe, 1997.

Fujisaki, Seinosuke 藤崎濟之助. Taiwan no banzoku 臺灣の蕃族 (Taiwan's Aboriginal Tribes). Tokyo: Kokushi kankōkai, 1931.

Gao, Yuanyuan 高淵源. 臺灣原住民高砂族の奇習と傳說. Taibei Shi: Xiang cao shan chu ban香草山, 1976.

Hong, Yinsheng 洪英聖. 台湾先住民脚印: 十族文化伝奇 (Taiwan’s early inhabitants’ footsteps: the culture and legends of the ten tribes). Taipei: shibaowenhua, 1993.

Hsu, Tsang-houei. Taiwan: Music of the Taiwan Aborigines. Revised and Updated by Wang Ying-fen. In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea, edited by Andrew P. Killick, et. al. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

Historical Postcard Series 2007. Postcards purchased in December, 2007, in Taipei, Taiwan. Imprint: 台湾歴史影像TAIWAN系列明信片Taiwan Historical Postcards Series台湾伝承.

Ide, Kiwata 井出季和太. Taiwan chisekishi 臺灣治績志. Taibei: Taiwan nichi nichi shinpōsha. 1937.

Ikuta, Makoto生田誠. 2005 Nihon ehagaki katarogu 2005日本絵葉書カタログ. 東京:里文出版, 2004.

Jiang, Zhengmin 蔣正民. 臺灣土著血緣. Taipei, 1993.

Kano, Tadao and Kokichi Segawa. An Illustrated Ethnography of Formosan Aborigines. vol. 1: The Yami. Tokyo: Maruzen Company, Ltd. 1956.

Katsuyama, Kichisaku 勝山吉作. Taiwan shōkai saishin shashinshū 臺灣紹介最新写真集. Taihoku, Katsuyama shashinkan, 1931.

Kōgo Eriko. 向後恵里子. ‘Nihon ehagaki: Nichiro sensōki ni okeru ehagaki buumu to suisaiga buumu o megutte’ [Japanese Picture Postcards: On the Watercolor Painting and Picture Postcard Booms of the Russo-Japanese War Period]. Waseda Daigaku kyōiku-bu Gakujutsu kenkyū 58 (February 2010):59-90.

Kuo, Chen-ti and Chien, Wei-ssu. Viva Tonal-The Dance Age (Videorecording). Taiwan Stream Media Technology, Inc., 104 minutes, 2004.

Kurosawa, Takatomo 黑澤隆朝. 台灣高砂族の音樂 (The music of Takasago tribe in Formosa). Tokyo: Yūzankaku, 1973.

Kwǒn, Hyǒk-hǔi 권 혁희. Chosǒn esǒ on sajin yǒpsǒ [Postcards from Korea] 조선 에서 온 사진 엽서. Seoul: Minǔmsa, 2005.

Lai, Chih-Chang 賴志彰. Taiwan cheng xiang ju luo: Peng lai jiu zhuang 蓬萊舊庄: 台灣城鄉聚落=The Abodes in the Bygone Era: Taiwan’s Town and Country Settlements. Taibei Shi: Lihong chubanshe, 1997. Series: Taiwan yingxiang lishi xilie.

Lee, Chin-hsien 李欽賢. Si tu huiying 斯土繪影, 1895-1945=The drawings of that land: the interpretation of Taiwan (1895-1945). Taibei Shi: Lihong chubanshe, 1997. Series: Taiwan yingxiang lishi xilie.

Li, Qianlang 李乾朗. 20 shiji Taiwan jianzhu 20世紀台灣建築. Taipei Shi: Yushan she, 2001.

Li, Qianlang  李乾朗. 19 shiji Taiwan jianzhu 19世紀台灣建築. Taipei Shi: Yushan she, 2005.

Lin, Daosheng 林道生. Yuan zhu min shen hua yu wen hua shang xi 原住民神話與文化賞析. Taipei Shi: Han yi se yan, 2003.

Liu, Jinghao 劉馨豪et. al. Haiguo tu suo: Taiwan ziran dili kaifa 海國圖索: 台灣自然地理開發 (1895-1945) = The landscapes of the island country: the development of natural geography of Taiwan (1895-1945). Taibei Shi: Lihong chubanshe, 1996. Series: Taiwan yingxiang lishi xilie.

Lynn, Hyung Gu. Moving Pictures: postcards of colonial Korea. IIAS Newsletter 44 (Summer 2007):8-9.

Macdonald, Phil. National Geographic Traveler: Taiwan 2d. ed. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2007.

Malas Aborigines Handicraft Postcard. Colorized postcards, reproduced from Japanese originals with new Chinese/Japanese/English captions on the back, original captions on the front. Purchased at Chiang Kai-shek airport, 2000.

Masuda, Fukutarō 增田福太郎. Takasagozoku no keisei kenkyū高砂族の刑制研究. Reprint: 台北市: 南天, 1996: Original: Tokyo: Daiyamondosha, 1944.

Matsumoto, Akemi 松本曉美 and Xie, Senzhan 謝森展. Taiwan huai jiu 1895-1945 臺灣懷舊 1895-1945 (Nostalgic Old Taiwan 1895-1945). Taibei: Chuang yi li wen hua shi ye you xian gong si, 1990.

McGovern, Janet B. Montgomery. Among the head-hunters of Formosa. London: T.F. Unwin, 1922.

Miyamoto, Nobuto 宮本延人, Kokichi Segawa, and Toichi Mabuchi. Taiwan no minzoku to bunka 台湾の民族と文化. Tokyo: Rokkō shuppan, 1987.

Miyamoto, Nobuto 宮本延人. Taiwan no genjūminzoku: kaisō watakushi no minzokugaku chōsa. 台湾の原住民族: 回想私の民族学調查. Tokyo: Rokkō shuppan, 1985.

Monanen Malialiaves. “Ah Neng’s Critique.” positions 8,1 (2000):179-200.

Mori, Ushinosuke 森丑之助. Taiwan banzoku zufu 臺灣蕃族圖譜. 2 vols. Taihoku: Taiwan Sōtokufu Rinji Taiwan Kyūkan Chōsakai, 1918.

Museum of the Institute of Ethnology at Academia Sinica. Color brochure. Obtained in 2003.

Nihon chiri taikei 日本地理大系 (An Outline Geography of Japan). Tokyo: Kaizōsha, 1930.

Nihon Jun’eki Taiwan Genjumin kenkyukai 日本順益台灣原住民研究會. Inō Kanori shūzō Taiwan Genjumin eizō 伊能嘉矩收藏台灣原住民影像. Taihoku: Jun’eki Taiwan Genjumin hakubutsukan: Nanten sho kyoku, 1999.

Pan, Ying 潘英. Taiwan yuanzhumin zu de lishi yuan liu 台灣原住民族的歷史源流. Taibei Shi: Taiyuan chuban she, 1998.

Riban no tomo 理蕃の友 (Friends of Aborigine Administration [periodical]). Original: Taihoku: Taiwan sōtokufu keimukyoku ribanka, 1932-1943; Reprinted version: Tokyo: 綠蔭書房, 1993.

Ruan, Changdui 阮昌锐. Wenmian, Guoshou, Taiya Wenhua 文面・馘首・泰雅文化 (Tattoos, Headhunting and Atayal Culture). Taibei: Taiwan bowuguan, 1999.

Seibanya honten 1930. Taiwan taikan 台湾大観 (An Overview of Taiwan). Yokohama: Seibanya honten, 1930 (printed May 2).

Shaughnessy, Edward L. China: Empire and Civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Shi Ming 明史. Taiwan jin yonhyaku nen shi台湾人四百年史. Tokyo: Shinsensha, 1994.

Shih, Tsui-feng 施翠峰. 臺灣原始藝術研究 (The primitive arts of Taiwan). 宜蘭縣五結鄉: 國立傳統藝術中心, 2005.

Shimada Kenzō. Checklist of Japanese Commemorative Picture Post Cards 日本記念絵葉書総図鑑 カラー復刻版. 日本郵趣出版, 2009.

Sinica Taiwan History 2007 (台湾史研究所図像資料庫) https://db1.sinica.edu.tw/%7Etextdb/test/visualImg1/index.htm [accessed December 2007]

Soyama, Takeshi 曽山毅. Shokuminchi Taiwan to kindai tsūrizumu 植民地台湾と近代ツ-リズム. Tokyo: Seikyōsha, 2003.

Storey, Robert. Lonely Planet Taiwan. Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 2001.

Suzuki, Hideo 鈴木秀夫. Taiwan bankai tenbō 台灣蕃界展望. Taihoku: Riban no tomo, 1935.

Suzuki, Sakutarō 鈴木作太郎. Taiwan no banzoku kenkyū 臺灣の蕃族研究. Taihoku: Taiwan shiseki kankōkai, 1932.

Suzuki, Tadasu 鈴木質. Banjin fūzokushi 蕃人風俗誌. Taihoku: Riban no tomo, 1932.

Suzuki, Tadasu 鈴木質. Taiwan fanren fengsuzhi: 臺灣蕃人風俗誌: 探尋原住民的歷史. Revised by Lin Chuangfu林川夫. Taipei Shi: Wuling chuban gongsi, 1991.

Taiwan sōtokufu kōtsū kyoku tetsudō-bu henshū. Taiwan tetsudō ryokō annai 臺灣鐵道旅行案內. Taipei, 1932; 1938 [revised, updated and distinct from 1932 edition].

Tenri sankōkan minzoku-bu 天理參考館民俗部. 台灣原住民の服飾 (Exhibition of costume of the Taiwan aborigines in the collection of Tenri university museum). Tokyo: Tokyo Tenri kyōkan, 1966.

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About the Project

Project Leaders

  • General Editor : Paul D. Barclay (website), Associate Professor of History, Lafayette College
    Responsible for acquisitions, metadata design, coordination, research, and cross-referencing
  • Project Developer : Eric Luhrs (contact), Research Collaborator, Lafayette College
    Responsible for digitization and technical design
  • Project Administrator : Charlotte Nunes (contact), Co-Director of Digital Scholarship Services, Lafayette College
    Responsible for operations, project management, and outreach
  • Project Administrator : James R. Griffin III (contact), Co-Director of Digital Scholarship Services, Lafayette College
    Responsible for Islandora development, digital infrastructure, and project management

Collaborating Scholars

  • Kishi Toshihiko, Professor of History, Center for Integrated Area Studies, Kyoto University.
  • Sepp Linhart, Professor Emeritus, Department of East Asian Studies, University of Vienna.
  • Michaela Kelly, Digital Humanities Postdoctoral Fellow, Lafayette College.
  • Seo-Hyun Park, Assistant Professor of Government and Law, Lafayette College.
  • Paul R. Katz, Research Fellow, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taiwan.
  • Ui-ti Tan, Doctoral Candidate, New York University.
  • Ying-fen Wang, Associate Professor & Head of Graduate Institute of Musicology, National Taiwan University.
  • Nicolas Grevot, Curator, Yang-Grevot Collection, Taipei, Taiwan.

Lafayette Collaborators

  • Paul Miller, Visual Resources Curator (Color Correction, Photography, Reproduction, All-around Lifesaver)
  • Adam Malantonio, UI / Web Programmer (Web User Interface Development and Design)
  • Thomas Goodnow, Integrated Technologies Librarian (User Experience Design)
  • Jonathan Dever, Class of 2013 (Research, Digitization, Metadata)
  • Keith Faust, Library Assistant (Digitization Assistance)
  • Li Guo, Class of 2015 (Research, Metadata, Chinese-Language input)
  • Long Ho, Class of 2010 (Programming)
  • Kyeun Hyeunkoo, Waseda University-Lafayette Exchange Student (Japanese-Language input, Translation, Research)
  • Naoko Ikegami, Japanese Language Instructor (Japanese-Language Consultant and Text Input)
  • Pam Murray, Project Archivist (Research Assistance)
  • Emanuel Santa-Donato, Class of 2010 (Translation, Research, Japanese-Language Input, Digitization Assistance)
  • Diane Shaw, Special Collections Librarian & College Archivists (Acquisition, Preservation)
  • Ashutosh Tamrakar, Class of 2012 (Color Correction, Research Assistance)
  • Anne Warner (Research)
  • Elizabeth Warner (Research)
  • Lijuan Xu (Research, Chinese-Language Advisor)
  • Haruki Yamaguchi, Class of 2011 (Programming)


  • Anne and Elizabeth Warner, Donors of Gerald and Rella Warner negatives and slides.
  • Richard Mammana, Donor of Russo-Japanese War stereo view slides and postcards from Japanese homefront
  • Michael Lewis, Generous Loan of Postcards in Michael Lewis Collection
  • Dallas Finn, Donor of Gerald Warner's postcards and photographs
  • John Shufelt and Lin Shuchin, Generous Loan of Postcards in Lin Chia-feng Family Postcards
  • Andrew Woodsworth, Generous Loan of Postcards in Woodsworth Collection
  • Dr. Michio Suzuki, Contributions of Family History in 1930s Taiwan
  • Daniel Doyle, Donor of Pacific War Postcards

Technical Details

Photographs, postcards, negatives, and slides were scanned as high resolution TIFs (at least 4000 pixels across the long edge). Photographs and Postcards were captured using SilverFast AI 6 software and an Epson 4990 scanner, negatives with SilverFast AI 6.5 and an Epson v700 scanner, and slides with a Nikon 5000D slide scanner. No descreening or post-scan sharpening processes were used. Master images were converted to JPEG2000 for online display, and to JPEG for download.

Metadata was created in Dublin Core format using MetaDB, a web-based metadata creation tool developed at Lafayette College. MetaDB allows digitization projects to be decentralized so that many people can work concurrently on individual parts of a project, then assembled into whole collections, and exported directly to an asset management system.